The association between napping and the risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis
Session title: Risk Factors and Prevention ePosters
Topic: Epidemiology
Session type: ePosters
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Z Pan1 , M Huang1 , J Huang1 , Z Yao1 , 1No.1 Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College - Guangzhou - China ,


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Napping is a habit prevalent worldwide and occurs from an early age. Some sleep specialists have suggested it as a potential public health tool due to the prevalence of sleep disorder. However, the association between napping and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality remains unclear.

To assess the association between napping and the risk of CVD and all-cause mortality.

We conducted a systematic search of Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases from inception through December 2019 for prospective cohort studies investigating the association between napping and the risk of CVD and/or all-cause mortality. Overall estimates were calculated using random effect models with inverse variance weighting. Dose-response meta-analysis was performed using restricted cubic spline models. The results were reported as hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).

A total of 313651 participants (57.8% female, 38.9% took naps) from 20 cohort studies were included in the analysis. Overall, pooled analysis detected no association between daytime nap and CVD (HR 1.13, 95%CI 0.99-1.28). However, in subgroup analysis including only participants who were female (HR 1.31, 95%CI 1.09-1.58), older (age>65 years) (HR 1.36, 95%CI 1.07-1.72), or took a longer nap (nap time>60 minutes) (HR 1.34, 95%CI 1.05-1.63), napping was significantly associated with a higher risk of CVD comparing to not napping. All-cause mortality was associated with napping overall (HR 1.19, 95%CI 1.12-1.26), and effect sizes were even more pronounced in females (HR 1.22, 95%CI 1.13-1.31), older participants (HR 1.27, 95%CI 1.11-1.45) and those who took a long nap (HR 1.30, 95%CI 1.12-1.47). Furthermore, after stratifying participants by night sleep time (<6 and >6h/day), no significant association was detected except those who slept >6h/day at night and took a long nap (HR 1.13, 95%CI 1.03-1.24). Dose-response analysis showed a J-curve relation between nap time and CVD (Figure 1). The HR decreased from 0 to 25 min/day, followed by a sharp increase in the risk at longer times. A positive linear relationship between nap time and all-cause mortality was also observed.

Long napping over 60 minutes per day is associated with increased risks of CVD and all-cause mortality. Night sleep duration may play a role in the relation between napping and all-cause mortality. Further, large-scale prospective cohort studies need to confirm our conclusion and investigate the underlying mechanisms driving these associations.